講題：Scope-taking strategies and the order of clausal categories in German Sign Language
講者：主講人Prof. Daniel Hole & Fabian Bross (University of Stuttgart)
The scope order of clausal categories has been claimed to be universal. In this paper we adopt a universalist cartographic approach to clausal syntax. By discussing the categories of speech acts, evaluation, epistemic modality, scalarity, volition and deontic, as well as other kinds of modality, we illustrate a striking regularity in strategies of scope-taking in German Sign Language (DGS): The wider/higher the scope of a clausal operator, the more likely its expression will occur with a high body part by way of layering. Namely, descending from the eyebrows to the lower face, tentatively to the shoulders, and finally switching to manual expressions. For intermediate operators a left-to-right concatenation strategy is employed, lower categories are expressed by way of a manual right-to-left concatenation strategy. The lower aspectual categories find layered expression within the manual sign. Hence, we propose a highly regular natural mapping of the scope-order of clausal categories onto the body. This sort of mapping can also be observed in other sign languages and may turn out to be universal.